Archive for the ‘Intel Processors’ Category:
We have covered plenty of the features that are newely introduced in market with the launch of Intel’s Core i7 processor. But let’s take an overview that how your Intel Core i7 works on financial tests.
As we know that, this new processor was most awaited by gaing geeks, extreme end users, corporate world as well as application based computing users.
Intel’s Turbo Boosting, Quick Path Technology, Hyper Threading have made it today the fastest processor on the planet. No doubt it is high on its performance. Technically speaking it is one of the masterpiece made with semiconductors.
But we have to take look at largest market of that home users who are not gamers and geeks nor the corporates. Where Intel i7 920 cost’s around $299, Core i7 Extreme edition which is fastest today cost more that $800 which is far out of reach of common man.
If we consider the last few launches like Core 2 Duo or Dual core from Intel, they were so affordable that they are now on 40% of the PC’s in the world. But if we compare the scenario with Core i7, it is only limited to the corporate world, Because only they can afford it.
No doubt, it is cost effective, it gives best performance, better for gamers and for all types of graphic usage too. But still $800 should not be the costing of i7.
Intel have to think over this facts and they should either launch a low cost version or they need to make some changes in its hardware to reduce the cost. Because without which it can not spread in the market as Core 2 Duo.
None the less they should consider their rival AMD which is offering quad core 2 at very low cost compared to i7. They can surely bring new technology to beat the i7, and if they manage to reduce its cost; Intel can have serious commercial problems with core i7.
So this are some of the financial aspect which are related to common PC users, Not even the users Intel should also think over it again.
The Very first Question popping up in our Minds will be ‘What does this Term Quick Path Technology mean?’
The name Quick means FAST, Path means a Particular Route. So Intel Core i7, acquired this Technology for point-to-point high-speed links to distributed shared memory.
It is rightly said: A small thinking can change the world. A small change in Architecture has increased our Working speed to Unimaginable thoughts.
Early a kind of Action to performed were sent by the Control signals and then to the Memory Controller to Processor to Memory Controller to Main Memory. This process was quite Time consuming, But Nehalem and Tukwila Architecture introduced Memory Controllers attached directly to the Processor hence decreasing Time for a particular Process and increasing the Speed.
Quick Path Architecture
The above combination of Nehalam and Tukwila Architecture includes memory controllers integrated into the microprocessors, which are connected together with a high-speed, point-to-point Interconnect. The Quick Path Interconnect provides High Bandwidth and Low Latency.
Quick Path Architecture
Earlier Intel began with, Front-Side bus that consist of single shared bi-directional bus. To further increase the bandwidth of the Front-side bus based platforms, the single-shared bus approach evolved into Dual Independent buses. The DIB approach was extended to its logical conclusion with the introduction of dedicated high-speed interconnects (DHSI).
Then came the Fastest Technology of the Universe, the Quick Path Technology.
The Quick Path Interconnect is a High-speed point-to-point interconnect. The processor may have one or more cores. When multiple cores are present, they may share caches or have separate caches. The processor also typically has one or more integrated memory controllers.
There are Two Unidirectional Inter-connects one for sending-out the Signals and other for Receiving the Incoming Signal. Hence the Processors need not wait in times of Sending and Receiving Signals at a particular instant of Time. As earlier it had to first send or receive signals and perform the alternative process according to the Priority.
So from above all we can easily say that Quick Path Technology features an integrated Memory Controller and High-Speed Interconnect, Linking processors and other components to deliver:
Dynamically scalable interconnect bandwidth.
Outstanding memory performance and flexibility.
Tightly integrated interconnect reliability, availability, and serviceability (RAS).
Optimal balance of price, performance, and energy efficiency.
Such New changes can be Key Ingredient in keeping Pace with the Next Generation of Microprocessors. So keep Thinking and Reading……..
Concept of Overclocking
The process of running the computer system at higher clock speed than their original speed is termed as Overclocking. (E.g. a CPU is running at a speed of 1.4GHz which is supposed to work at 1.2GHz or 200MHz CPU at 233MHz). Core i7 have some significant components which needs further improvement in traditional processor’s overclocking.
Focus and Manipulation
Most of the regular user buys low speed computer components and they overclock to higher speeds. They mainly focus their efforts on computer components like Processor, Chipsets, Motherboards, Video cards and Random Access Memory (RAM) during the clocking. But to be more concentrated, Manipulation on the motherboard front side of bus and especially on the CPU’s multiplier is done for major overclocking to impact. It is done till it reaches the required frequency. It can be done by replacing the Front Side Bus with the QPI (Quick Path Interconnect) because Intel Core i7 have its maximum use & often this is called the Base clock (BCLK). Also overclocking in Core i7 is much affected by CPU multipliers, bus dividers, voltages, thermal loads & cooling technology.
Overclocking Consideration for Core i7:
1. The clock rate should be having the low speed than the CPU’s speed.
2. Ensure that component should supplied with proper power supply
3. Excess power can also damage the component.
4. Perfection in tolerance is must.
5. Expensive mother boards need advanced settings that computer enthusiasts are likely to use that will also have built-in overclocking capabilities.
Due to overclocking there is faster access of the data on the hard disk.
On the cheaper component we can increase the speed.
Overclocking itself is an engaging body and supports dedicated online communities.
Some bottleneck system where overclocking of component carries full potential than the limiting hardware is overclocked.
Improved performance in Gaming, Encoding, Editing with no additional expenses. Overclocking can increase the time before upgrade is needed.
Overclocking increase the speed of the Core i7 system significantly. Cooling techniques can reduce damage due to overheating. Even the graphics cards can be also clocked .The other option to clocking is flashing and unlocking to video cards. It has to be noticed that Core i7 have not only introduced new technologies like Turbo boosting and Quick Path, But also have totally new Nehalem microarchitecture, these factors will lead to serious changes in traditional overclocking techniques.
So folks, take proper precautions before overclocking this Nehalem Based Processor.
Intel Core i7 is a 64 bit processor having its excellent speed capabilities with its 4 core technology, based on Intel’s Nehalem architecture which is also recognized as Intel 64 architecture has some of its unique features which takes your computing experience to another higher level.
Following are the tips before you move to this 64 Bit Processor:
1. Computer system with a processor, chipset, BIOS, operating system, device drivers and applications enabled for Intel 64 architecture are must for this new 64-bit computing on Intel architecture.
2. 64 bit BIOS is also a must for this architecture because it will not at all work on any 32 bit environment.
3. Intel’s four core technology is based on their Virtualization Technology, which requires system with Intel’s virtual machine monitor i.e. VMM support for running specific software. And it also varies according to configuration.
4. User should take notice that many of VMM applications are still under development process.
5. Intel’s HT Technology i.e., Hyper Threading Technology support must be enabled for your system so as to enjoy the Core i7 for your all types of software and hardware configuration.
6. Core i7 has Execute Disable Bit functionality, so your hardware configuration should be supportive for this technology as well as operating system which supports the same. So do check this information before buying Core i7.
7. Intel’s Core i7 works only with DDR3 RAM check whether your PC hardware configuration is suitable for DDR3, before upgrading.
8. Rather than upgrading you can go for a whole new computer system as it will have all supports from VMM, 64 Bit requirement as well as the DDR3 slots.
Intel Core i7 has Demand Based Switching which increases its multi tasking and decreases the chances of your PC to hang. Its four cores give you the best multi tasking speed. Its best compatibility with other hardware is yet to reveal its peak performance, as this Core i7 is new in the market. But we’ll let you know soon.
Till then enjoy the best tips for your processors at The Intel i7 Blog.
The new Intel Core i7 Processor
About this time last year Intel launched what was the fastest 45nm quad core CPU on the planet, the Intel Core 2 Quad QX9770. Well, guess what, Intel has done it again with the latest architectural achievement, the Core I7 Extreme 965. What the two have is common is that they both are based on Penryn cores, they both are 45 nanometer chips and they both run at a clock speed of 3.2GHz. After these things what you have is a whole new animal. Gone from this chip is the twelve megabytes of L2 cache, this is replaced by a third level of cache at 8MB. Slow and inefficient it is not. With the addition of an integrated memory controller, the memory bandwidth is expected to be huge by comparison to today’s top of the line processors, somewhere close to two to three times the peak bandwidth. SMT (Simultaneous Multi Threading) has made a return on the Core I7 generation. This will enable the processor to run a total of eight threads at one time. Some other new features are Dynamic Energy Management, new SSE4 instructions, three level cache with a shared 8MB L3 cache and improved branch prediction. Many are interested in the new efficiencies and features, while many think this generation will be the Holy Grail of processors, Let’s find out just how it performs. That’s the question that is on everyone’s mind.
We’ve selected the flagship, $999 Core i7-965 Extreme Edition CPU to represent the Core i7 family, which at launch later this month will include three other processors, starting at $284. These new chips all require a new chipset, which will only exist at first by way of a very expensive new motherboard. We don’t expect mainstream users will adopt Core i7 in any variation at first, at least until the motherboard prices come down. But the well-heeled performance hounds who do make the leap will enjoy the fastest consumer CPUs on the market.
Unlike a new socket design, new chipsets aren’t uncommon with updated Intel CPUs. The last three Extreme Edition chips Intel has launched each required its own new motherboard circuitry, and Core i7 is no different. Intel’s new Core i7-supporting X58 chipset will only appear in very high-end boards. We conducted this review with the Intel Extreme Motherboard DX58SO board. Expect Gigabyte, MSI, and Intel’s other typical board partners to introduce their own new X58 boards, and we expect prices will stay at or around the $300 mark. For this reason, Core i7 will remain an enthusiast CPU until Intel introduces a more moderate, mass consumption-friendly Core i7-compatible chipset.
Faster memory access
The reason for this platform shift has to do in part with a fundamental design change in Intel’s CPU architecture. As has long been rumored, Intel has finally adopted an integrated memory controller into its Core i7 CPUs. What this means is that instead of the CPU communicating with a separate controller on the motherboard before it can talk to the system memory, Core i7 can save a step, and essentially receive data from the system RAM directly.
Intel's new Extreme Motherboard DX58SO.
Core i7 has enough architecture changes to require a brand new connection design between the chip and the motherboard. This is no small change, because Intel has stuck with the LGA775 (land grid array) chip socket since the days of Pentium 4. The new socket design, LGA1366, will not accept any older Intel CPUs, nor will Core i7 work on any older motherboards.
AMD adopted this integrated controller strategy in the early days of its Athlon dual-core processors, and it was one of the factors that led them to dominate the competing Intel Pentium D CPUs of that generation. Through superior design since then, Intel has regained its performance lead over AMD, and we suspect that by adding the on-chip memory controller to Core i7, Intel has only made it more difficult for AMD to find a design advantage moving forward.
A potential complication here is that the new memory controller has three channels to the RAM. That means that unlike most desktop setups, which involve two or four memory sticks, Core i7 systems will want memory sticks in multiples of three. Hence why Intel shipped our test system with only 3GB of RAM (we got creative with a 2x1GB, 1x2GB RAM configuration, for 4GB total for testing), and why in high-end PCs that use the new X58 platform, 3GB, 6GB, and 12GB configurations will be common. X58 will also only support DDR3 RAM, whose prices have thankfully come down over the past year.
Four cores, sometimes eight
If you’ve followed Intel’s chips designs over the years, the term “Hyperthreading” shouldn’t be unfamiliar. This technology lets Intel simulate more processing threads on top of its old dual-core Pentium 4 chips. It abandoned that strategy with the Core 2 family, but Intel has resurrected it with Core i7, and it’s why you’ll see eight processing threads when you bring up Windows’ system performance screen. Few day-to-day programs will benefit from Hyperthreading, and it’s more of a situational benefit for processing reliability and the scant few applications that can actually support so many threads. Core i7 will eventually hit eight native cores on a single CPU, or 16 processing streams with Hyperthreading, but Intel has not made it clear when that will happen. It may be worth the wait, if you know you’ll need that much parallelism, but few consumers will.
Another significant change with the Core i7/X58 landscape had to do with graphics cards. Intel’s Skulltrail platform of last year supported both standards as well, but the specialized CPUs that made the board worthwhile were prohibitively expensive. With the X58 chipset, yes, it comes on an expensive motherboard, but you can purchase a Core i7 chip to go with it for less than $300. The Core 2 Extreme QX9775 Skulltrail CPU started at $1,500. Gamers who stay current with graphics cards should be especially happy with this flexibility, as changing 3D card vendors will no longer require a wholesale system rebuild.
You’ll note from our power-consumption tests that the Core i7 consumes almost the exact same amount of energy both at idle and while under load. We didn’t expect major gains here, as each chip uses the same 45 nanometer process, runs at a similar clock speed, and with roughly the same number of transistors. Typically Intel gains power efficiency with chips introduced in a “tock” year, which involves a more efficient design of the chips from a “tick” year such as these. The Core i7-965 Extreme may have improved its relative power usage, in that it uses fewer transistors to do more work and at faster clock speeds than the older Core 2 Extreme chips. But anyone building a system with this new processor should expect to need an equivalently beefy power supply, especially if you intend to add multiple graphics cards and hard drives.
Intel (Integrated Electronics) corporation is the world’s largest semiconductor company and the inventor of x86 (32-bit) microprocessors. 286, 386, 486, Pentium and Itanium processors are the developed processors over x86 processors. Pentium Pro and Pentium II processors are the next generation. Intel Core 2 brand refers to a range of Intel’s consumer 64-bit single- and dual-core and 2×2 MCM (Multi-Chip Module) quad-core CPUS with the x86-64 instruction set, based on the Intel Core micro architecture derived from the 32-bit dual-core Yonah processor. This was introduced in 2006. with Solo(single-core), Duo (dual-core), Quad (quad-core) and Extreme branches. This was the successful brand in that period. The successor to The Core 2 brand is the Core i7, which is based on the Nehalem micro architecture.
The most notable changes in features of Core i7are, the FSB is replaced by a QuickPath interface, and the processor has an onboard memory controller. These are the Quad Core processors. The Nehalem architecture has many new features some of which are present in the Core i7.
The ones that represent significant changes from the Core 2 include:
- The new LGA 1366 socket is incompatible with earlier processors.
- On-die memory controller: the memory is directly connected to the processor.
- Three channel memory: each channel can support one or two DDR3 DIMMs. Motherboards for Core i7 have four (3+1) or six DIMM slots instead of two or four, and DIMMs should be installed in sets of three, not two.
- Support for DDR3 only.
- No ECC support.
- The front side bus is replaced by QuickPath interface. Motherboards must use a chipset that supports QuickPath.
- The following caches:
- 32 KB L1 instruction and 32 KB L1 data cache per core.
- 256 KB L2 cache (combined instruction and data) per core
- 8 MB L3 (combined instruction and data) “inclusive”, shared by all cores
- Single-die device: all four cores, the memory controller, and all cache are on a single die.
- “Turbo Boost” technology allows all active cores to intelligently clock themselves up in steps of 133 MHz over the design clock rate as long as the CPU’s predetermined thermal and electrical requirements are still met.
- Re-implemented Hyper-threading. Each of the four cores can process up to two threads simultaneously, so the processor appears to the OS as eight CPUs. This feature was present in the older NetBurst architecture but was dropped in Core.
- Only one QuickPath interface: not intended for multi-processor motherboards.
- 45nm process technology.
- 781M transistors for the quad core version.
- Sophisticated power management can place an unused core in a zero-power mode.
- Support for SSE4.2 & SSE4.1 instruction sets.
With faster, intelligent, multi-core technology that applies processing power where it is needed most, Core i7 processors deliver an incredible breakthrough in PC performance. We can multi task applications faster and unleash incredible digital media creation. It has the combination of Turbo Boost technology and Hyper threading technology which maximizes the performance during workload.
The Core i7 die and major components. Source: Intel
Special features of Intel Core i7 Processors:
Intel(R) Turbo Boost technology maximizes speed for demanding applications, dynamically accelerating performance to match your workload—more performance when you need it the most. Intel(R) Hyper-Threading technology enables highly threaded applications to get more work done in parallel. With 8 threads available to the operating system, multi-tasking becomes even easier. Intel(R) Smart Cache provides a higher-performance, more efficient cache subsystem. Optimized for industry leading multi-threaded games. Intel(R) QuickPath Interconnect is designed for increased bandwidth and low latency. It can achieve data transfer speeds as high as 25.6 GB/sec with the Extreme Edition processor. Integrated memory controller enables three channels of DDR3 1066 MHz memory, resulting in up to 25.6 GB/sec memory bandwidth. This memory controller’s lower latency and higher memory bandwidth delivers amazing performance for data-intensive applications. Intel(R) HD Boost significantly improves a broad range of multimedia and compute-intensive applications. The 128-bit SSE instructions are issued at a throughput rate of one per clock cycle, allowing a new level of processing efficiency with SSE4 optimized applications.
Intel Core i7 Processor and Corsair Triple-Channel DDR3 RAM On The DX58SO 'Smackover' Motherboard